You have heard of the AIP (autoimmune paleo) for gut health? Now learn about IAP.
Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (IAP) is another key player in the intestinal barrier system.
IAP is a hydrolase enzyme that mainly expresses in the duodenum of your small intestine.
They are found higher in Type 0, and Type B blood types and lowest in type A.
One of IAP’s main roles is detoxifying harmful bacterial biproducts like Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) so that it doesn’t permeate the gut barrier.
LPS is cell wall derivative from gram negative bacteria in the gut that is being studies as one of the key molecules that is harmful in intestinal barrier problems (aka leaky gut). We have even seen LPS blamed for Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH).(Estaki, DeCoffe, & Gibson, 2014)
Its highly implicated in inflammatory bowel disease as studies have showed decreased intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene expression in IBD subjects. Dietary factors to alter IAP have been inconsistent in the research likely so I can’t comfortably say how to modify it with diet at this point other than fiber in the diet will likely increase it. I am not sure what caloric restriction, protein, omega-3 fats, omega-6 fats, or saturated fats does to IAP at this point. Even though this picture states the influence, the literature is less clear.
Studies are beginning where they are using exogenous IAP to help with patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
In the meantime, any strategy that you know of to increase Butyrate and also quench LPS (like Serum Derived Immunoglobulins) will likely help support he function of Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase. Dietary fiber and its Short chain fatty acid derivatives like propionate and valerate can increase intestinal alkaline phosphatase expression at least in cell studies (not in-vivo that I know of). (Hinnebusch, Meng, Wu, Archer, & Hodin, 2002).
Image and reference:
Estaki, M., DeCoffe, D., & Gibson, D. L. (2014). Interplay between intestinal alkaline phosphatase, diet, gut microbes and immunity. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 20(42), 15650. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i42.15650
Hinnebusch, B. F., Meng, S., Wu, J. T., Archer, S. Y., & Hodin, R. A. (2002). The Effects of Short-Chain Fatty Acids on Human Colon Cancer Cell Phenotype Are Associated with Histone Hyperacetylation. The Journal of Nutrition, 132(5), 1012–1017. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/132.5.1012