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Fatigue, Brain Fog, and Cognitive Decline from Long-Covid.

According to the CDC, Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), also known as “Long COVID,” are long-term symptoms that might be experienced weeks to months after primary infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.


Post-viral syndromes have been around for ages and often linked to Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)


The symptoms of PASC are extensive with over 200 symptoms reported ranging from general systematic fatigue , sensorimotor, neurologic , digestive, and cardiovascular.


Like any new problem it helps to have a framework to think through problems and its especially helpful if other models are are available from other conditions that have been treated.


With the help of many researchers ; we have a framework to help with Long-Covid. This framework involves many overlapping imbalances involving the immune system and circulatory system. No two long-covid patients will present with the same exact imbalance; which makes treating this disorder very tricky.


One of the most common symptoms is brain inflammation (or Neuroinflammation) that presents as fatigue , brain fog, and cognitive changes. This can be debilitating . Neuroinflammation was also a topic I dove in deeply here in this episode with James Lavalle, PharmD


Many patients don't know where to turn for help. I recently invited Dawn Ipsen, PhD onto my podcast to discuss some therapies that are available to address long-covid. Here is a link to the episode.




Dr. Ipsan is a pharmacist that is out of the Seattle area. She is a professor of pharmacology at the University of Washington and at Bastyr University and also an owner of two very successful compound pharmacies; Kussler's Pharmacy In Snohomish, Washington and Clark's Pharmacy in Bellevue, Washington. Dawn was a previous guest on our podcast and speaking to us about low dose naltrexone. Today she's coming back to help us connect some dots and find out some solutions for long covid. We also had a previous episode with researcher Amy Proal, PhD which really broke down the underlying drivers of Long Covid and I encourage everyone to listen to that one as a companion to this episode. In this episode we cover:



Dr. Ipsen's Early Response to Covid-19

Current state of Covid-19 ; March , 2023

Similarities between Long-Covid and other chronic illnesses

Neuroinflammation and how it plays a role in Long-Covid

Is Low Dose Naltrexone an effective therapy for Long Covid?

Is Methylene Blue a safe and effective therapy for Long Covid?

Synapsin (B12, NAD) for Long Covid

Ivermectin and its role in Covid-19

Why its difficult to research Covid-19 therapies


Dawn Ipsen, PharmD is owner and pharmacist of Clarks Compounding Pharmacy in Bellevue, WA and Kuslers Compounding Pharmacy in Snohomish, WA. Dawn graduated from the University of Washington with a Doctorate of Pharmacy in 2001 where she received the Dean's Outstanding Service Award. She holds memberships with International Academy of Compounding Pharmacists and Washington State Pharmacy Association. She is a Clinical Instructor for the University of Washington School of Pharmacy and an Affiliate Faculty Member for Bastyr University. She is a Pharmacist Preceptor for Washington State and teaches Doctorate of Pharmacy students. Dawn also serves on the Professional Compounding Centers of America (PCCA) Advisory Counsel. She was named PCCA Pharmacist of the Month in 2016 and Washington State Distinguished Young Pharmacist of the Year in 2011. Dawn has presented on the topic of pharmaceutical compounding to physician, patient, and peer groups. She is dedicated to helping her community find solutions to medication problems through personalized medication therapies.






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